Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen

Lehrstuhl für Mustererkennung

Martensstraße 3

91058 Erlangen

Summary

The goal of this lecture is to familiarize the students with the overall
pipeline of a Pattern Recognition System. The various steps involved from
data capture to pattern classification are presented. The lectures start
with a short introduction, where the nomenclature is defined. Analog to
digital conversion is briefly discussed with a focus on how it impacts
further signal analysis. Commonly used preprocessing methods are then
described. A key component of Pattern Recognition is feature extraction.
Thus, several techniques for feature computation will be presented including
Walsh Transform, Haar Transform, Linear Predictive Coding, Wavelets,
Moments, Principal Component Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis. The
lectures conclude with a basic introduction to classification. The
principles of statistical, distribution-free and nonparametric
classification approaches will be presented. Within this context we will
cover Bayesian and Gaussian classifiers, as well as artificial neural
networks. The accompanying exercises will provide further details on the
methods and procedures presented in this lecture with particular emphasis on
their application.

__Dates & Rooms:__

Tuesday, 10:15 - 11:45; Room: A 2.16

Wednesday, 12:15 - 13:45; Room: 0.68

Tuesday, 10:15 - 11:45; Room: A 2.16

Wednesday, 12:15 - 13:45; Room: 0.68

Lecturer

- Tentative course syllabus: It provides a roadmap to the lectures throughout the semester.
- The lecture video is available here (only accessible if you are inside the university network; if you want to watch the videos from home, consider to tunnel the connection).
**A. Exam Dates**Monday 18.02.2013 (only in the morning)

Tuesday 19.02.2013

Wednesday 20.02.2013 (only in the morning)

Wednesday 20.03.2013

Thursday 21.03.2013

Tuesday 09.04.2013

Wednesday 10.04.2013

**B. Signing up for the Exam**Reserving a slot for the exam is only possible

**after****January 6th, 2013**.You must reserve a time-slot for the exam, independent of whether you have signed up at meinCampus. You can do so by:

**either**by personally visiting the secretaries at the Pattern Recognition Lab, at the 09.138 at Martenstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen,**or**by sending them an email at Kristina Müller at mueller(at)cs.fau.de or at Iris Koppe at koppe(at)cs.fau.de . Make sure in your email to write your full name, student ID, program of Studies, birthdate, number of credits and type of exam (e.g. benoteter Schein, unbenoteter Schein, Prüfung durch meinCampus, etc.).

The updated slides will be posted on the web soon after the corresponding lecture is completed.

In order to prepare yourself for an upcoming lecture, look at the slides of the previous Winter semester.

Introduction: | course outline |

Key PR Concepts: | the pipeline of a PR system, terminology, postulates of PR |

Sampling: | review of Fourier analysis, Nyquist sampling theorem |

Quantization: | signal-to-noise ratio, pulse code modulation, vector quantization, k-means algorithm |

Equalization and Thresholding: | histogram equalization, thresholding, binarization, maximum likelihood estimation, various thresholding algorithms (intersection of Gaussians, Otsu's algorithm, unimodal algorithm, entropy-based) |

Noise Suppression: | Linear Shift Invariant transformations, convolution, mean filter, Gaussian filter, median filter |

Edge Detection: | gradient-based edge detector, Laplacian of Gaussian, sharpening |

Non-linear Filtering: | recursive filters, homomorphic filters, cepstrum, morphological operators, rank operators |

Pattern Normalization: | size normalization, location normalization, pose normalization, geometric moments, central moments |

Introduction to Feature Extraction: | curse of dimensionality, heuristic versus analytic feature extraction methods, projection on orthogonal bases, Fourier transform as a feature |

Orthonormal Bases for Feature Extraction: | spectrogram, Walsh-Hadamard transform, Haar transform |

LPC and Moments: | linear predictive coding, moments as features, Hu moments |

Multiresolution Analysis: | short-time fourier transform, continuous wavelet transform, discrete wavelt transform, wavelet series |

PCA, LDA: | introduction to analytic feature extraction, principal component analysis, eigenfaces, linear discriminant analysis, fisherfaces |

OFT: | optimal feature transform, Mahalanobis distance, feature transform |

Optimization Methods: | gradient descent, coordinate descent |

Feature Selection: | objective functions for feature selection including entropy and KL-divergence, strategies for exploring the space of feature subsets including branch-and-bound |

Bayesian Classifier: | introduction to classification, decision function, misclassification cost, misclassification risk, Bayesian classifier |

Gaussian Classifier: | Gaussian classifier, linear vs. quadratic decision boundaries |

Polynomial Classifiers: | polynomial classifier, discriminant functions |

Non-parametric Classifiers: | K-nearest neighbor density estimation, Parzen windows |

Artificial Neural Networks: | introduction to ANNs, ANN and classification, Radial Basis Function ANNs |

Multilayer Perceptrons: | ANN layouts, feed-forward networks, perceptron, MLPs, back-propagation |

Review: | end of lecture review, brief recap of what was covered in class |

- A nice review/tutorial on Fourier Analysis can be found at http://www.sunlightd.com/fourier/
- Follow this link for additional information on Covariance Matrices.
- A more detailed tutorial on Principal Component Analysis can be found here.
- Here are some notes on Singular Value Decomposition.
- Here is the pseudocode for feature selection using Branch and Bound.
- You may want to read the following paper which describes how Branch and Bound can be used in Feature Selection. Due to copyright issues, a copy can not be placed on this web-site. P.M. Narendra and K. Fukunaga, "A Branch and Bound Algorithm for Feature Subset Selection, "
*IEEE Transactions on Computers*, Vol. C-26, No. 9, 1977, pp. 917-922. - A general overview on the Branch and Bound methodology is presented here.
- A detailed paper on Branch and Bound can be found in this web-page.